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Portugal is the westernmost state in continental Europe. Located in the southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. In the north and east it borders with Spain, in the south and…

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Macedonia or the Republic of Macedonia is a state in southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. It borders on Kosovo and Serbia in the north, with Albania in the west, with Greece in the south, and Bulgaria in the east. There is no access to the sea.

In most of the territory there are ridges of medium-high mountain systems Skopska-Crna Gora, Pind, Shar (the highest point is Mount Korab (2764 m.)) And Pirin, separated by vast intermountain basins. Mountain ranges separate the valleys of the Vardar and Strumitsa rivers flowing through the whole country. In the southwest are the large lakes of Ohrid and Prespa partially belonging to Macedonia, and in the southeast – the large Doiran Lake.

The region is seismically active, earthquakes are quite strong. As a result of the latter, which occurred in 1963, the city of Skopje was severely destroyed.

The climate in Macedonia, depending on its geographical location, is moving from a temperate continental climate to a subtropical one.

In the southern part of the country, climatic conditions similar to those of the Mediterranean prevail. It is hot in summer, the air is dry, the air temperature is from + 20 ° C to + 23 ° C.

However, if you climb the mountains, feel that it is noticeably cooler there. In winter, it is mild and humid – on average, the temperature ranges from -1 ° C to -10 ° C.

In the north of the country, the annual rainfall is approximately 500 mm, and in the west, on the mountain slopes, up to 1700 mm in winter.

In the mountains, snow lies from November to March. However, already in May, air temperature often does not drop below zero.

The summer holiday season in Macedonia lasts from May to September.

Popular souvenirs are a variety of jewelry made of gold, silver and Ohrid pearls. They also bring Rakia (local moonshine) from Macedonia.

You need to buy Ohrid pearls in specialized stores or not at all, but only in no case at souvenir shops where there is a very high probability of buying a fake.

The tourist infrastructure in the Republic of Macedonia is still relatively poorly developed, there are not many hotels, but the prices for accommodation in them as a whole throughout the country are quite high. In some hotels, foreigners are charged a double rate and often only in currency.

It is often advisable to stay in the private sector (maximum 10-20 $ per person in high season).

The territory of modern Macedonia was developed by man in the Neolithic era. The first historically famous settlement is a settlement founded by the Illyrian and Thracian tribes. Already in the 5th century BC. e. on the territory of Macedonia, a state arose that existed until the 2nd century BC. e. at the same time, there were almost no cities as centers of craft and trade.

The history of Macedonia from the 6th century AD is literally woven from the conquests of its various tribes, peoples, states.

So, in the 6-7th century, Slavic tribes came to the territory of Macedonia, which ethnically and linguistically made up one group with the tribes that settled on the territory of modern Bulgaria. In the 7th century, the Slavs of Macedonia obeyed Byzantium. At the end of the 7th century, the proto-Bulgarian horde of Khan Kuver invaded here and settled in the area of ​​the city of Bitola. In the 9th century, most of Macedonia was part of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. In the 9-10 centuries the first feudal relations were formed on the territory of Macedonia, Christianity became widespread. At the beginning of the 11th century, Macedonia was completely conquered by the Byzantine Empire. And from the mid-13th century, the territory of the country is part of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom. In the mid-14th century, Macedonia was conquered by the Serbian king Stefan Dusan, and after a quarter of a century by the Ottoman Empire.

Turkish rule contributed to the influx of Albanians into Macedonia, purely Muslim villages began to appear. At the same time, the Greek liberation struggle associated with the Greek national liberation revolution of 1821-1829 also covered the Greek population of Macedonia. At the same time, the liberation movement of the Slavic population of Macedonia was launched, aimed at overthrowing the Ottoman yoke. As a result, in 1903 a national liberation uprising broke out in Macedonia, during which the so-called Republic of Krushevo was proclaimed and the Provisional Revolutionary Government headed by N. Karev was created.

The intensification at the beginning of the 20th century of the struggle of the European powers, especially Germany and Austria-Hungary, for supremacy on the Balkan Peninsula turned Macedonia into one of the knots of international contradictions. The Balkan wars of 1912-1913 eventually led to the fact that the territory of Macedonia was divided between Serbia (or sometimes called this part of Vardar Macedonia), Greece (or Aegean Macedonia) and Bulgaria (Pirin Territory).

In 1918, Vardar Macedonia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which in 1929 became Yugoslavia. At the same time, in economic terms, Vardar Macedonia was one of the most backward regions of royal Yugoslavia.

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