Ireland is a state in Western Europe that occupies most of the island of Ireland. Area – 70.273 km². The capital is the city of Dublin.
Ireland is located on the island of the same name (occupies most of it) in the Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of Great Britain. The length from north to south is 465 km, from east to west – 285 km. The coast is about 2.8 thousand km long.
The entire middle part of the island is occupied by a hilly plain, teeming with lakes and peat bogs. The central plain rises to the edges of the island, replaced by low mountains. In the southwest in the Kerry mountains is the highest point of Ireland – the city of Carrantville (1041 m). The coast of the island is heavily indented and teeming with fjords, bays, bays and deep estuaries.
The climate is temperate oceanic. The west and northwest coast of Ireland are washed by the Gulf Stream, so the climate here is warm and humid. The weather is unpredictable – rainfall can be replaced by the sun several times a day. The rains are light but frequent.
The average temperature in winter is +4 .. + 7 ° С, in summer +16 .. + 21 ° С. In the winter months, the weather is warm, but damp, snow is extremely rare. Average sea water temperature: in winter +6 .. + 10 ° С, in summer +12 .. + 17 ° С.
The best time to visit the country is July and August. A visit to Ireland in June or September also has many advantages – the weather is still (or already) quite warm, all the attractions are open to visitors, but fewer tourists.
Large stores are open from 9:00 to 18:00 on weekdays, some supermarkets are open on Sunday from 12:00 to 18:00. Many small shops are open from 7.00 to 23.00 and longer.
One of the souvenirs brought from Ireland may be Irish whiskey. Alcoholic beverages, including beer, are sold only at points of sale that have special licenses (“Off License”).
In Ireland, you can buy inexpensive and high-quality homespun textiles: tweed, wool, cotton and knitwear. Irish sheepskin sweaters are especially popular. Of souvenirs, figurines of fabulous creatures from Irish myths, goods with Guinness symbols are most often purchased.
When making purchases in Ireland, it is worth filling out special Tax Back forms to receive cash compensation in the amount of 12-17% for exported goods when leaving the country.
WHERE TO STAY
Hotels in Ireland for every taste and budget: from 1 * (a kind of hostel) to 5 *. In general, hotels are quite expensive, in terms of service and rooms they always clearly correspond to their stardom. The overall level of hotels is higher than the European average. Starting from 3 * in each room there is a hairdryer, TV, kettle. Food – mainly breakfasts. Breakfast here is hearty, with hot. In addition to hotels, there are guesthouses and small private guest houses that are cheaper than hotels.
All hotels in the country are registered with the Ministry of Tourism of Ireland and are regularly inspected by inspections. Therefore, for a clear correspondence of each of them with the assigned “stardom” you can vouch.
SEA AND BEACHES
Ireland has long, wide, sandy beaches. A full beach vacation with swimming – only the weather interferes.
The first people settled Ireland during the Mesolithic, around 8000 BC, when its climate improved after the retreat of the glaciers. Gradually, the pre-Celtic population was assimilated, and its inhabitants already from the middle of 1 thousand BC. e. became part of the Celtic population and culture.
In 432, Saint Patrick, a native of Brittany, spread Christianity among the Irish. The calm that reigned on the island favored the development of scholarship among the monks. Already from the 6th century, Ireland became the center of Western scholarship, Christian preachers on the mainland came out of its monastic schools; their main source was a monastery on the island of Ion.
This clergy education disappeared as soon as the Vikings began to disturb Ireland with their raids, and soon began to establish settlements on the shores of the island (in particular, Dublin). Only at the beginning of the XI century, the Irish led by King Brian Boru defeated the Vikings. Brian Boru died in the decisive battle of Klontarf in 1014.
At the end of the XII century, part of the territory of Ireland was conquered by the British under King Henry II. The English barons took possession of the lands of the Irish clans and introduced English laws and a management system. The subjugated area was called the pale, and both in terms of management and its further development, it was sharply different from the still not conquered, the so-called Wild Ireland, in which the British constantly sought to make new conquests.
In 1348, the “Black Death” came to Ireland, exterminating almost all the British who lived in cities where mortality was particularly high. After the plague, British power extended no further than Dublin.
During the English Reformation, the Irish remained Catholics, creating a surviving split between the two islands. In 1536, Henry VIII crushed the rebellion of Silk Thomas Fitzgerald, an English protege in Ireland, and decided to re-conquer the island. In 1541, Henry declared Ireland a kingdom.