The Chinese civilization is one of the oldest in the world. The earliest traces of human habitation are found in the southwestern part of China, where people lived more than 1.7 million years ago.
During the Neolithic period, there were several different cultures on the territory of modern China, of which the most studied Yangshao (4-3 thousand BC) and Longshan (3-2 thousand to AD).
At that time, people raised livestock (pigs, dogs), engaged in agriculture.
Interestingly, the community was maternal: the husband went into the family of his wife, inheritance was allowed only on the mother’s side, the names of the young men changed after marriage.
One of the developed states of antiquity was the state of Yin (16-11 centuries BC). There was a written language, sericulture, metallurgy developed, a lunar calendar appeared, according to which a simple year had 12 months, a leap year 13, large months 30, and small 29 days.
Gradually, this culture was replaced by the Zhou states, characterized by the manufacture of all tools from iron, the construction of an irrigation network, dams and dams.
In 221 BC, the Qin Empire was founded. The Great Wall of China (700 km) was built.
In the period around the beginning of the era, the Qin Dynasty was replaced by the Han dynasty. Paper was invented.
Gradually, the territory of China again broke up into a number of states. The unification of China took place again only in 581 by the Sui Dynasty. The Great Chinese Canal was built.
In 619, the Tang Dynasty was founded, which became one of the most powerful states in the medieval world.
By 1279. Genghis Khan’s troops occupied the territory of China, and moved the capital to Beijing, establishing the Yuan Dynasty.
A series of revolts led to the overthrow of the Yuan Empire in 1368 and the establishment of the Ming Empire. In 1644, China was invaded by the Manchus and the Qing Dynasty was founded. At the head of the state was an unlimited monarch – bogdyhan. Society was divided into classes. “Shenshi” — scientists-enjoyed special honor. From among them, city rulers and judges were appointed. The Europeans called them ” mandarins “(from port. “mandar” – manage). The Qing dynasty subjugated Mongolia, East Turkestan.
From the middle of the 18th century. China has become closed to Europeans. Trade was only allowed in the port of Guangzhou. An exception was made only for Russian merchants and diplomats.
England began to import opium in large quantities to undermine China. The Qing Dynasty banned the smoking of opium, which was the beginning of the first Anglo-Chinese “opium” war in 1840.
China was defeated and opened 5 ports to Britain, and also ceded the island of Hong Kong (under the treaty of 1842). Further, China was defeated in the second “opium” war (1856-1860), in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895).
After the suppression of the “boxer” uprising in 1899-1901. China signed a “final treaty” with 11 powers (including Russia) in which it undertook to pay a huge contribution for 39 years, giving the right to foreigners to keep their fleet and army in China.
After a series of uprisings in December 1911, Sun Yat-sen was elected interim president of China, in 1912. he abdicated, and his supporters founded a national party, the Kuomintang.
During World War 1, China was again divided and the government of Southern China was headed by Sun Yat-sen. After the death of S. Yat-sen (March 1925), Chiang Kai-shek entered the political arena, who in 1927 carried out a coup (300 thousand people, including intellectuals, died in the year after the coup).
Chiang Kai-shek’s real name is Jiang Zhongzheng (official, solemn name) or Jiang Jieshi (everyday, everyday).
But in some areas of China, Soviet power was still established and the Red Army began to form.
In 1931. Northeast China was occupied by Japan and the state of Manchougo was formed. By 1937. Japan has taken over almost all of China.
After the defeat of the Japanese army in 1945, the country began a civil war between the Red Army and the Kuomintang. As a result, the establishment of the People’s Republic of China was proclaimed in September 1949. In the spring of 1950, the civil war ended. The state sector began to develop, and in 1953 an agrarian reform was carried out, according to which 300 million rubles were spent. the peasants were given land. 1 five-year plan was adopted.
In the mid-50s, Mao Zedong’s group became more active in the leadership of the CPC, and theses were formulated about the people of China as a “blank sheet of paper”, about the” advantage “of poverty and backwardness, ” the law on undulating development”, the course “let a hundred flowers bloom” , etc.
In 1956, a complete co-operation of agricultural enterprises was carried out, and private industry and private trade were liquidated at an accelerated pace. Naturally, the pace of development of the country has sharply decreased.
Since the beginning of 1958, the group abandoned its five-year plans and declared that China, following a “special course”, would overtake the United States and the USSR in 7-10 years.
The course of the “three red banners” was adopted: the new general line, the “great leap forward” and the “people’s communes”.
In September 1958, the “battle for steel” unfolded. In the blast furnaces, which were built everywhere, everything was melted down, including household utensils. Mao Zedong even suggested that part of the railway should be melted down. The resulting products only vaguely resembled metal.
In August 1958, the widespread transition from agricultural cooperatives to people’s communes began. 740 thousand cooperatives were transformed into 96 thousand communes. The main slogan is “The state owns everything except the toothbrush”. The markets were destroyed, and free food was provided. By 1960, the “great Leap Forward” had brought the country to the brink of economic disaster. It was only by 1955 that the consequences of the “great leap forward” were eliminated.
But in 1966, a “Cultural Revolution”was proclaimed in the country. In 1966-1976, about 100 million people were repressed. Detachments of Red Guards and Zaofans destroyed museums, universities, and organized public executions of intellectuals. All the cultured (and they were even people with glasses) were sent to the village for labor re-education. Mao’s ideas were declared the ultimate truth. Only the death of Mao (September 9, 1976) interrupted the Cultural Revolution. In 1978. The “Cultural Revolution” was condemned and a course of economic reform was adopted. Deng Xiaoping became the” father ” of the reforms. First, reforms were carried out in the agricultural sector, and since 1984, in cities. Enterprises switched to self-financing, joint ventures and free economic zones were created.
However, the CCP plays a major role in political life. At the congress of 1987, it was announced that China is at the initial stage of building socialism, this stage will take about 100 years. The suppression of student protests in the summer of 1989 showed that the CCP was not going to abandon the course of building socialism.