Attractions in China.
China is a country whose history goes back more than one thousand years. It has many ancient cultural and historical traditions. The ancestors of the Chinese population left behind many historical monuments and artifacts.
The main ones are:
The Great Wall of China . This unique structure is called the Long Wall by the Chinese. The length of this structure is 8851.8 kilometers. It is located in the northern part of China. This structure consists of several fragments. The brickwork is 6260 kilometers, 2232.5 kilometers is a natural mountain range, and 360 kilometers are deep ditches filled with water. The construction of the wall began in the IV-III century BC, when individual Chinese states began to build defensive structures to protect themselves from the raids of nomadic tribes of Central Asia.
After the unification of China into one state by the Qin Dynasty, in 221 BC, Emperor Shi Huangdi ordered the unification of all existing defenses into one single wall. Construction work on the Great Wall continued and under the Han Dynasty was completed in the third century BC. To this day, only the western part of the Great Wall has survived, the eastern part is heavily destroyed and in some places is an earthen rampart.
In its shape, the wall looks like a trapezoid with a height of 10 meters, a base with a width of about 9 meters and a top with a width of about 6 meters. Quadrangular watchtowers are built every 200 meters. On the outside of the wall there are defensive battlements with holes-embrasures. The upper part of the wall was a wide road paved with flagstones. On this road, if necessary, military units and convoys could easily move. The wall passes through the mountain ranges, repeating the curves of the terrain.
The Imperial Palace . This unique palace is located in the heart of Beijing. This palace is also known as the Forbidden City. For 500 years of its existence, only the emperor and his family members could live in this palace. Courtiers, officials, and all the rest of the staff lived outside the palace. Until 1925, mere mortals were strictly forbidden to enter the palace. The palace was built between 1406 and 1420 and served as the residence of 24 Chinese emperors. The total area of the palace is 720 thousand square meters, and it has 9999 rooms. The palace is surrounded by a defensive wall with a length of 3400 meters and a moat with water.
The palace is divided into two parts-the Outer and Inner Palaces. In the Outer Palace, where the emperor performed his state functions, there were halls of Supreme Harmony, Preservation of Harmony and Complete Harmony. The Inner Palace contained living quarters for the Emperor and his entire family. The main rooms of the Inner Palace were the hall of Unification and Peace, the hall of Earthly Tranquility, and the hall of Heavenly Purity. There was also the Imperial Garden, and the gardens of Peace, Kindness, and Longevity.
In 1987, the complex of buildings of the Imperial Palace was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Huang and the “terracotta army”. 35 kilometers from the city of Xi’an is Mount Lishan. The necropolis of the first emperor of united China was created in this mountain. Next to the mausoleum was built the burial of the “terracotta army”. The construction of the mausoleum for the emperor and the burial of the “terracotta army” was started in 247 BC and lasted for 38 years. The burial site is located at a distance of 1.5 kilometers from the tomb of the emperor himself.
In March 1974, local farmers while drilling an artesian well accidentally discovered the burial of the “terracotta army”. 700 thousand people were involved in the construction of the mausoleum and the burial of the “terracotta army”. During the excavations, three vaulted underground chambers were discovered, in which 8099 terracotta statues of warriors were discovered. These sculptures are real works of art. No one shape is like another. Each individual warrior differs from each other even in facial expression.
Like the Imperial Palace, the Mausoleum and the “terracotta army” were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1987.