How to cook sushi in Japan.
Today, sushi is one of the most popular dishes in the world. However, most often in Russia, Europe and America, something very far from the original is served under this name. That is why we will tell you how to make real sushi in Japan.
The dish, called “sushi” (“sushi”), appeared in Japan in the VII century. It was prepared as follows: the raw fish was sprinkled with salt and mixed with rice, after which it was put under a stone press and marinated for several months. This technology is considered one of the oldest methods of conservation. Even the hieroglyph for sushi translates to ” pickled fish.” Since then, the method of preparing sushi has constantly changed: in the XVII century in Japan, rice vinegar was widely used, which was added to sushi to give the dish piquancy. In addition, the name “sushi” was no longer marinated, but raw fish.
The dish acquired its modern appearance only in the XIX century. Its creator can be considered a Japanese chef Johei, who made a rice bun, smeared it with wasabi (Japanese horseradish, which has antimicrobial properties), and put a piece of raw fish on top. This type of sushi is called nigiri-it was with him that the triumphal march of the Japanese dish around the world began. Today, there are several types of this famous Japanese dish:
Nigiri-sushi-as mentioned earlier, this is a rice bun with wasabi and a piece of raw fish. In extremely rare cases, a little nori (dried and compressed seaweed) is added to the nigiri.
Makizushi (rolls) – sushi that has a cylindrical shape, usually wrapped in nori leaves (sometimes in an omelet or cucumber) with a filling in the form of fish or vegetables and rice.
Futomaki is practically the same as makizushi. The difference is that futomaki is larger in size and they can simultaneously contain several types of filling.
Futomaki is a special kind of makizushi in which the nori leaves are inside and the rice is outside. This cooking technology was invented by the Americans, as the appearance of nori leaves spoils their appetite. A little later, uramaki began to be prepared in Japan.
Hosomaki resemble makizushi in appearance, but are slightly smaller in diameter. Outside is a nori leaf, inside is usually a cucumber or tuna.
Temaki-10-centimeter rolls wrapped in a sheet of nori, inside there is a large amount of filling. They are allowed to eat with their hands, since it is impossible to do this with the help of sticks.
Osidzushi-sushi, in which the entire filling is pressed into a bar, then cut into small rectangular pieces.
Narezushi, as already mentioned, is the oldest type of sushi, which is made from raw fish, which is marinated with salt and rice for more than a month, after which it can be eaten for a year after preservation.
Gunkan-maki-sushi in the form of a ship of rice, decorated with a strip of nori with a filling of caviar or pasta salad.
Only chefs who have spent at least three years learning this art can prepare a real Japanese dish – this is how long sushi master training courses last in Japan. It is almost impossible to make real sushi at home, even Japanese housewives do it in extremely rare cases, since the process of making sushi can be compared to a certain sacrament. Therefore, it should be recognized that in many European (including Russian) restaurants, the sign of which reads “Japanese cuisine”, the national dishes of this country do not know how to cook at all.
Recall the scandal covered by the Washington Post: the Minister of Agriculture of Japan was in America, where he visited a Japanese restaurant. The dishes that were served to him could be called Japanese with a great stretch, which immediately exasperated the minister. After this incident, the Japanese government decided to correct the situation and began checking foreign restaurants that call themselves Japanese. Those establishments that passed the quality control and were found to be suitable, were given the right to hang a sign on the window, saying that the restaurant has the right to be called Japanese-cherry blossoms.
There are many varieties of sushi, which in Russia it is simply impossible to prepare using technology. First of all, this applies to sushi, which is added to raw fish. In Japan, there are night markets that bring only the freshest fish, after four hours, this product is already considered spoiled. People who want to taste sushi can personally make sure that the products are fresh: in many Japanese restaurants, fish is caught directly from the aquarium and the dish is prepared in full view of everyone. In Russia, frozen oceanic or marine fish is most often used – and this can no longer be called a Japanese dish. Also, in Russia, there is no guarantee that the fish from which sushi was made today will not be used tomorrow. And this is fraught not only with poisoning, but also with diseases, and in rare cases-even death.
In Japan, sushi is a fairly expensive dish that a person with above-average income can afford (the average portion in a restaurant costs about $ 250). This is due to the fact that the dish is prepared from fresh and expensive products. In Russia, the cheapest food products can be used as a filling: crab sticks, cucumbers, cheese, pepper, etc. In Japanese sushi, the most common fillings are the following: tofu, avocado, squid, octopus, shrimp, sea urchin, clams, pickled daikon (Japanese radish), sauerkraut, asparagus, pickled plum, pumpkin, burdock and corn with mayonnaise.
In Japan, there is a kind of sushi, the main ingredient of which is bamboo leaves. In Russia, they are simply impossible to find on sale. There are also doubts about the most important ingredient – rice. In Japan, white fine-grained Japanese rice is used to make sushi, which is mixed with rice vinegar, sugar and salt. Sometimes brown or wild rice is used instead of fine-grained white rice. A very important point is the technology of cooking rice: first, it is washed, then boiled in a pot with a closed lid, adding very little water, which before that should be infused for some time on the leaves of kombu (edible seaweed). After the rice is ready, it should cool down in a special wooden bowl. Japanese rice exports are very limited. That is why in Russia the most famous Japanese dish in any case will be a fake.